bernard de clairvaux influence

Bernard announced his determination to follow the Cistercian way of life and together with his entourage he swamped the small abbey, swelling the number of brothers there to such an extent that it was inevitable that more abbeys would have to be formed. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. His father, a knight named Tecelin, perished on crusade; and his mother Aleth, a daughter of the noble house of Mon-Bar, and a woman distinguished for her piety, died while Bernard was yet a boy. [12] The council found in favour of Bernard and their judgment was confirmed by the pope. Construction of the Monastery of St. Bernard de Clairvaux was begun in the year 1133 AD in Sacramenia, near Segovia in northern Spain. In May of that year, the pope, supported by the army of Lothair III, entered Rome, but Lothair III, feeling himself too weak to resist the partisans of Anacletus, retired beyond the Alps, and Innocent sought refuge in Pisa in September 1133. Another time, while he slept in an inn, a prostitute was introduced naked beside him, and he saved his chastity by running. After persuading Gerard, Bernard traveled to visit William X, Duke of Aquitaine. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henry Archbishop of Sens, and Stephen de Senlis, Bishop of Paris. She, with the consent of her husband, soon took the veil in the Benedictine nunnery of Jully-les-Nonnains. He is often cited for saying that Mary Magdalene was the Apostle to the Apostles. Both the Henrician and the Petrobrusian faiths began to die out by the end of that year. Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard. [26], Bernard "noted centuries ago: the people who are their own spiritual directors have fools for disciples. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. [9], Again reproaches arose against Bernard and he was denounced, even in Rome. The first abbot of Clairvaux developed a rich theology of sacred space and music, writing extensively on both. Bernard is Dante Alighieri's last guide, in Divine Comedy, as he travels through the Empyrean. On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". transl. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 - 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians.. [10], In 1132, Bernard accompanied Innocent II into Italy, and at Cluny the pope abolished the dues which Clairvaux used to pay to that abbey. At the age of nine, he was sent to a school at Châtillon-sur-Seine run by the secular canons of Saint-Vorles. A new critical ed. [6], The little community of reformed Benedictines at Cîteaux, which had so profound an influence on Western monasticism, grew rapidly. St Bernard enters history in an indisputable sense at the age of 23 years, when together with a very large group of his brothers, cousins and maybe other kin, (probably between 25 and 30) he rode into the abbey of Citeaux, Dijon. [19] The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ"[19]. Bernard of Clairvaux, saint, abbot, and doctor, fills one of the most conspicuous positions in the history of the middle ages. After the council of Étampes, Bernard spoke with King Henry I of England, also known as Henry Beauclerc, about Henry I's reservations regarding Pope Innocent II. [12] Bernard then denounced Abelard to the pope and cardinals of the Curia. At his death, they numbered 343. Cistercians, Burgundy, beekeepers, candlemakers, Gibraltar, Queens' College, Cambridge, Speyer Cathedral. Bernard's parents were Tescelin de Fontaine, lord of Fontaine-lès-Dijon, and Alèthe de Montbard [fr], both members of the highest nobility of Burgundy. Bernard of Clairvaux is the attributed author of poems often translated in English hymnals as: The modern critical edition is Sancti Bernardi opera (1957–1977), edited by Jean Leclercq.[33][d]. Actually St Bernard contributed to condemning certain teachings of Abelard at the Provincial Synod of Sens in 1140 and went so far as to request Pope Innocent II's intervention. King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace. It was at this council that Bernard traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility. [5], In 1098 Robert of Molesme had founded Cîteaux Abbey, near Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St Benedict in all its rigour. Bernard died at age sixty-three on 20 August 1153, after forty years spent in the cloister. In the conclaveAnacletus IIwas elected by a narrow mnargin, but many influential cardinals favored the contender, Pope Innocent … Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux 1115–1153, was one of the most eloquent preachers and spiritual writers of the medieval period. His father, Tecelin, or Tesselin, a knight of great bravery, was the friend and vassal of the Duke of Burgundy. Around this time, he praised them in his Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae. [6] His father and all his brothers entered Clairvaux to pursue religious life, leaving only Humbeline, his sister, in the secular world. of the Sermones de tempore, de sanctis, and de diversis has been published by B. Gsell and L. Janauschek in vol. The next day, after Bernard made his opening statement, Abelard decided to retire without attempting to answer. From this point barely a decision was made in Rome that was not influenced in some way by St Bernard himself. Moved by his burning words, many Christians embarked for the Holy Land, but the crusade ended in miserable failure.[6]. This is exemplified by the short verse he once wrote. Bernard wrote to the pope a few days afterwards, "Cities and castles are now empty. It is a fact that the Templars venerated St Bernard from that moment on, until their own demise in 1307. Conrad III and his son Henry died the same year. About the same time, Bernard was visited at Clairvaux by Malachy, Primate of All Ireland, and a very close friendship formed between them. Died Clairvaux, near Troyes, Champagne France August 20th 1153. Bernard's spiritual writing as well as his extraordinary personal magnetism began to attract many to Clairvaux and the other Cistercian monasteries, leading to many new foundations. ST BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX (1090-1153), De precepto et dispensatione and other works, in Latin, DECORATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM He preached at the Council of Vézelay (1146) to recruit for the Second Crusade. Bernard invited William to the Mass which he celebrated in the Church of La Couldre. [b] In 1137, he was again forced to leave his solitude by order of the pope to put an end to the quarrel between Lothair and Roger of Sicily. A staunch supporter of an Augustinian view of the mystery of the Christian faith, St Bernard was fiercely opposed to ‘rationalistic’ views of Christianity. One time he restored the power of speech to an old man that he might confess his sins before he died. In a letter to the people of Toulouse, undoubtedly written at the end of 1146, Bernard calls upon them to extirpate the last remnants of the heresy. This continued for the remainder of his life and may have demonstrated an inability on the part of his digestive system to cope with the severe diet enjoyed or rather endured by the Cistercians at the time. He then found Radulphe in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[21]. [30] Dante's choice appears to be based on Bernard's contemplative mysticism, his devotion to Mary, and his reputation for eloquence. of Mabillon, 4 … The Templars were officially declared to be a monastic order under the protection of Church in Troyes in 1139. [4] William yielded and the schism ended. [5] During the absence of the Bishop of Langres, Bernard was blessed as abbot by William of Champeaux, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. The central elements of Bernard's Mariology are how he explained the virginity of Mary, the "Star of the Sea", and her role as Mediatrix. In June 1145, at the invitation of Cardinal Alberic of Ostia, Bernard traveled in southern France. There are many who believe that it was his championship of the Templars that made their survival possible. Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. He defended the rights of the Church against the encroachments of kings and princes, and recalled to their duty Henry Archbishop of Sense, and Stephen de Senlis, Bishop of Paris. It is suggested that Clairvaux was peopled with all manner of scholars, some of whom may well have been Jewish scribes. Many stories exist regarding Bernard’s early years – his visions, torments and realisations. Much can be found elsewhere in these pages relating specifically to the Cistercians. Forbid those noisy troublesome frogs to come out of their holes, to leave their marshes ... Then your friend will no longer be exposed to the accusations of pride and presumption.[4]. Completed eight years later in 1141, the Monastery was dedicated to the Blessed Mother and was originally named ‘The Monastery of … [16] His preaching, aided by his ascetic looks and simple attire, helped doom the new sects. St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church (Spanish: Monasterio Español de Sacramenia) is a medieval Spanish monastery cloister which was built in the town of Sacramenia in Segovia, Spain, in the 12th century but dismantled in the 20th century and shipped to New York City in the United States. Space here does not permit a full handling of this extraordinary man’s life or his interest in so many subjects, including architecture, music and (probably) ancient manuscripts. He is labeled the "Mellifluous Doctor" for his eloquence. The whole conflict ended when Anacletus died on 25 January 1138. From the beginning of the year 1153, Bernard felt his death approaching. Abelard sought a debate with Bernard, but Bernard initially declined, saying he did not feel matters of such importance should be settled by logical analyses. Much could be written about the ‘nature’ of St Bernard. [13] He was buried at the Clairvaux Abbey, but after its dissolution in 1792 by the French revolutionary government, his remains were transferred to Troyes Cathedral. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. St. Bernard died during the year of 1153 in Clairvaux, France. [6] In 1113 Stephen Harding had just succeeded Alberic as third Abbot of Cîteaux when Bernard and thirty other young noblemen of Burgundy sought admission into the monastery. Bernard considered lectio divina and contemplation guided by the Holy Spirit the keys to nourishing Christian spirituality. The European importance of Bernard, however, began with the death of Honorius (1130) and the disputed election that followed. This he did, almost certainly, at the behest of Bernard and possibly as a result of promises he had made to this end at the time Bernard showed him the support which led to the Vatican. [5], Bernard had occupied himself in sending bands of monks from his overcrowded monastery into Germany, Sweden, England, Ireland, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy. The question appears to be easily answered for in the small Templar type Church in St Bernard’s birthplace there is a marble plaque that states the Church was built by St Bernard’s mother in thanks for the safe return of her husband from the Crusade. "[20], When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse; they supposedly ran out of cloth to make crosses. A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae, representing the combined will of earth and heaven,, List of Latin nicknames of the Middle Ages: Doctors in theology, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint archive, "Monuments historiques : Couvent et Basilique Saint-Bernard", "Sermon XIII: The Believers Concern, to pray for Faith", Audio on the life of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Database with all known medieval representations of Bernard, "Here Followeth the Life of St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor", "Two Accounts of the Early Career of St. Bernard", Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Abbot, Doctor of the Church-1153, Lewis E 26 De consideratione (On Consideration) at OPenn, MS 484/11 Super cantica canticorum at OPenn, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America,, Pre-Reformation saints of the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 12:18. In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church". Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III. Read his meditations on prayer and God’s love. During an absence from Clairvaux, the Grand Prior of the Abbey of Cluny went to Clairvaux and enticed away Bernard's cousin, Robert of Châtillon. St Bernard travelled extensively, negotiated in civil disturbances and, surprisingly for the period, was instrumental in preventing a number of pogroms taking place against Jews in various locations within what is present day France. Believing himself at last secure in his cloister, Bernard devoted himself with renewed vigour to the composition of the works which won for him the title of "Doctor of the Church". The passing of Pope Eugenius had struck the fatal blow by taking from him one whom he considered his greatest friend and consoler. The son of a knight and vassal of the duke of Burgundy who perished in the first crusade, Bernard may have felt for a time the temptations of a military career, but the influence of a pious mother and his own inclinations towards a life of meditation and study led him to the cloister. From that moment a strong friendship sprang up between the abbot and the bishop, who was professor of theology at Notre Dame of Paris, and the founder of the Abbey of St. Victor, Paris. The din of arms, the danger, the labors, the fatigues of war, are the penances that God now imposes upon you. Innocent II, having been banished from Rome by Anacletus, took refuge in France. Bernard praises it in his "De Laudibus Novae Militiae". How and why St Bernard became involved in the formation of the Knights Templar may never be fully understood. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. The purpose of this council was to settle certain disputes of the bishops of Paris, and regulate other matters of the Church of France. St. Bernard's Parish Hall. All of these were attributed to Bernard after his canonisation and therefore must surely be taken with a pinch of salt. He wrote at this time his sermons on the Song of Songs. Bernard's "Prayer to the Shoulder Wound of Jesus" is often published in Catholic prayer books. Though not yet 30 years old, Bernard was listened to with the greatest attention and respect, especially when he developed his thoughts upon the revival of the primitive spirit of regularity and fervour in all the monastic orders. William Marshall – The Flower of Chivalry, Above: Melrose Abbey:  JeremyA under CC BY-SA 2.5 The Knights Templar are known to history as the warrior monks, but what is not as commonly known is the kinship the Order shared with the Cistercians, […], by Stephen Dafoe Within two decades of the victory of the First Crusade (1095-1099) a group of knights led by Hugues (Hugh) de Payens offered themselves to the Patriarch of Jerusalem to serve as a […], Traditional history tells us that Hugues de Payens and Geoffrey de St. Omer arrived at the palace of King Baldwin II with the desire to defend Christian pilgrims from the attack of the infidels. Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. Abstract. No matter who you are or where you are on your spiritual journey, you are welcome here. This letter made a positive impression on Harmeric, and in the Vatican. ‘Believe me, for I know, you will find something far greater in the woods than in books. Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090 – 20 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot, and a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism through the nascent Order of Cistercians. It is now housed in the Treasury of Troyes Cathedral and can be seen there, together with the skull and thighbone of St Malachy, a friend and contemporary of St Bernard. by S. J. Eales of the Life and Works of St. Bernard Clairvaux from the ed. Henry of Lausanne, a former Cluniac monk, had adopted the teachings of the Petrobrusians, followers of Peter of Bruys and spread them in a modified form after Peter's death. He was drawn into the controversy developing between the new monastic movement which he preeminently represented and the established Cluniac order, a branch of the Benedictines. Pope Innocent II died in the year 1143. In 1144 Eugene III commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade[6] and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade. Alert. rolled over the fields, and was echoed by the voice of the orator: "Cursed be he who does not stain his sword with blood. Bernard answered the letter by saying that, if he had assisted at the council, it was because he had been dragged to it by force, replying: Now illustrious Harmeric if you so wished, who would have been more capable of freeing me from the necessity of assisting at the council than yourself? Although travelling extensively on many and varied errands during his life, St Bernard always returned to his own abbey of Clairvaux, which it seems (to us at least) had been deliberately built in a location that allowed free travel in all directions. His success in this endeavour marked St Bernard as probably the most powerful man in Christendom, for as ‘Pope Maker’ he probably had more influence than the Pontiff himself. As the founder and abbot of the Abbey of Clairvaux, St. Bernard (1091-1153) was centrally responsible for the early expansion of the Cistercian Order throughout Europe. [6], So great was his reputation that princes and Popes sought his advice, and even the enemies of the Church admired the holiness of his life and the greatness of his writings. He traveled to Sicily in 1137 to convince the king of Sicily to follow Innocent. Bernard’s influence grew within the established Church of his day. Bernard, informed of this by William of St-Thierry, is said to have held a meeting with Abelard intending to persuade him to amend his writings, during which Abelard repented and promised to do so. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18 January 1174. Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, answered Bernard and assured him of his great admiration and sincere friendship. Born Fontaine de Dijon France 1090. Bernard, the third of a family of seven children, six of whom were sons, was educated with particular care, because, while yet unborn, a devout man had foretold his great destiny. The Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux. The Mission of St. John the Divine became the Church of St. Bernard de Clairvaux, named in honor of the great Saint who had been a leading influence among the Cistercians 847 years ago, and whose feast day is commemorated on August 20. Bernard's letters to William of St-Thierry also express his apprehension about confronting the preeminent logician. Saint Bernard de Clairvaux French abbot. He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) southeast of Bar-sur-Aube. [17] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise. Malachy wanted to become a Cistercian, but the pope would not give his permission. For whatever reason St Bernard wrote the first ‘rules’ of the Templar Order. Bernard suffered frequent bouts of ill health, almost from the moment he joined the Cistercians. The monastery, however, made rapid progress. [citation needed], John Calvin quotes Bernard several times[22] in support of the doctrine of Sola Fide,[23] which Martin Luther described as the article upon which the church stands or falls. In addition to these victories, Bernard also had his trials. In brief however it would be fair to suggest that Bernard’s own personality, drive and influence saw the Cistercians growing from a slightly quirky fringe monastic institution to being arguably the most significant component of Christian monasticism that the Middle Ages ever knew. A much fuller and more comprehensive detailed biography of St Bernard’s life can be found in ‘The Knights Templar Revealed’ Butler and Dafoe, Constable and Robinson – 2006. At the solicitation of William of St. Thierry, Bernard defended the order by publishing his Apology which was divided into two parts. This caused the pope to be recognized by all the great powers. Lothair II became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. At the Eucharist, he "admonished the Duke not to despise God as he did His servants". Abelard submitted without resistance, and he retired to Cluny to live under the protection of Peter the Venerable, where he died two years later. Cardinal Harmeric, on behalf of the pope, wrote Bernard a sharp letter of remonstrance stating, "It is not fitting that noisy and troublesome frogs should come out of their marshes to trouble the Holy See and the cardinals."[4]. His two successors, Pope Celestine II and Pope Lucius II, reigned only a short time, and then Bernard saw one of his disciples, Bernard of Pisa, and known thereafter as Eugene III, raised to the Chair of Saint Peter. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Malachy died at Clairvaux in 1148. [4] These include: Burgundian saint, abbot and theologian (1090-1153). Abelard continued to press for a public debate, and made his challenge widely known, making it hard for Bernard to decline. Bernard had observed that when lectio divina was neglected monasticism suffered. Made abbot of Clairvaux (1115), he erected numerous abbeys where his spirit flourished. Only the influence of a trusted friend and the order of the Chapter General convinced Bernard to ease up on his stringent regime. He protested his profound esteem for the Benedictines of Cluny whom he declared he loved equally as well as the other religious orders. Nevertheless, the monastery at Clairvaux flourished as more and more disciples sought to place themselves under the leadership of St. Bernard. He did not pledge allegiance to Innocent until 1135. After the council, the bishop of Verdunwas deposed. After his death a cult of St Bernard rapidly developed. Whether an ‘intention’ to create an Order of the Templar sort existed prior to the life of St Bernard himself is a … This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Main Cistercian monk and mystic, the founder and abbot of the abbey of Clairvaux and one of the most influential churchmen of his time. He then returned to Clairvaux. [17] The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states were threatened with similar disaster. At the age of 22, while Bernard was at prayer in a church, he felt the calling of God to enter the monastery of Cîteaux.

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